Even though there are many advancement in technology, keeping foods fresher in space for a long period has been impossible. Research has been going on to keep fresh fruits and vegetables for long-term in space. It has been found that spraying waters over fruits and vegetables keep them fresher for a long period. It’s a fact that if a plant or a food has more solute than the environment surrounding it then to achieve equilibrium state water diffuses into the cell.
Thus by routinely spraying the vegetables with water it keeps up their turgor pressure and keeps them nice and crisp for us to eat.
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The mars rock is looks like some odd rock to see from inside from the Earth. The traveler team used 2 instruments to determine the curiosity and structure of the rock is football that type of rock is known as “Jake Matijevic “.
The work is under the process and drive curiosity about 100 yards eastward and to target the rock using drill tool.
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In what will be the first of four high-altitude enhance routes to begin in the summertime season of 2013, technologists at NASA's Jet Space Clinical (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif., and Wallops Journey Ability in Wallops Isle, Va., are planning to evaluate new deceleration gadgets that could substitute present nice technological innovation for getting ever-larger payloads at higher levels on Mars.
NASA is using a sequence of explode snowmobile assessments at the U.S. Naval Air Weaponry Place at Chinese suppliers Pond, Calif., in planning for full-up assessments of the Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator Venture, or LDSD. The project is examining water and parachute decelerators to slowly spacecraft prior to getting and allow NASA to enhance arrived payload public, enhance getting precision and enhance the elevation of secure landing-sites. Credit: JPL
NASA hasn't examined deceleration technological innovation supersonically since 1972 when it performed four high-altitude assessments of a supersonic parachute used during the Viking program. "We’ve been trapped with that style ever since," said Level Adler, NASA’s Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) program lead. NASA will use the same technological innovation again this year when it provides the Fascination rover to Mars.
However, planetary landers of the next day will require much bigger move gadgets than any now in use. "What we need is new technological innovation to slowly bigger, bulkier landers from the supersonic connections of environmental use of subsonic ground-approach connections," Adler said.
The LDSD program is targeted at providing NASA a new and enhanced ability. Financed by NASA’s Area Technology Program, the JPL-led team programs to perform full-scale, stratospheric assessments of three possibly cutting-edge technological innovation. The aim is to increase their technology-readiness levels to about six, which means they could be used in a plane project, perhaps as early as 2018.
The first two are supersonic water decelerators, large stress boats that fill around an access automobile and slowly it from Mach 3.5 or quicker to about Mach 2. One of these water gadgets actions nearly 20 toes across (six meters), the other nearly 26 toes (eight meters). The third technological innovation is a 110-foot (33.5-meter) parachute to further slowly the access automobile from Mach 2 to subsonic connections needed for a secure getting. All three would be the biggest gadgets of their kind ever traveled at connections several times greater than the rate of audio.
The style involves the group to connect the test automobile outfitted with the decelerator and parachute to a Wallops-provided high-altitude enhance. Once the enhance gets to an elevation of about 22 kilometers (36 kilometers) above Global exterior, the explode would flame its applications and bring check automobile to Martian environmental densities at an elevation of 31 kilometers (50 kilometers) at Mach 4. There, check automobile would set up the supersonic decelerator, followed by the parachute.
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The project harnesses the strong points of both companies, said Scott Schaire, Wallops LDSD performing project administrator. While NASA JPL and its companies are creating check automobile, decelerators, and parachute, NASA Wallops is accountable for enhance functions, enhance instrumentation, and other functions associated with enhance releases.
One considerable NASA Wallops-provided technological innovation is an entirely new enhance release program — an attempt Schaire's team started particularly for the supersonic assessments. With this new program, check automobile will be revoked from a straight, 80-foot structure. Its job is avoiding check automobile from reaching the earth as the enhance starts to increase off. A customized equipment that appears like a farm-irrigation program will help specialists lay out the enhance and a new reel automobile will hold the enhance until release.
For More Details Visit : http://www.nasa.gov/topics/technology/features/gizmo-launches.html
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This is unexpected because Mars has a much thinner atmosphere than Earth, is only about one percent as dense, and its high-speed winds are less frequent and weaker than Earth's.
For years, researchers debated whether sand dunes observed on Mars were mostly fossil features related to past climate, rather than currently active. In the past two years, researchers using images from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera have detected and reported sand movement.
Now, scientists using HiRISE images have determined that entire dunes as thick as 200 feet (61 meters) are moving as coherent units across the Martian landscape. The study was published online today by the journal Nature.
"This exciting discovery will inform scientists trying to better understand the changing surface conditions of Mars on a more global scale," said Doug McCuistion, director, NASA's Mars Exploration Program, Washington. "This improved understanding of surface dynamics will provide vital information in planning future robotic and human Mars exploration missions."
Researchers analyzed before-and-after images using a new software tool developed at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, Calif. The tool measured changes in the position of sand ripples, revealing the ripples move faster the higher up they are on a dune.
The study examined images taken in 2007 and 2010 of the Nili Patera sand dune field located near the Martian equator. By correlating the ripples' movement to their position on the dune, the analysis determined the entire dunes are moving. This allows researchers to estimate the volume, or flux, of moving sand.
"We chose Nili Patera because we knew there was sand motion going on there, and we could quantify it," said Nathan Bridges, a planetary scientist at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md., and lead author of the Nature paper. "The Nili dunes also are similar to dunes in places like Antarctica and to other locations on Mars."
The study adds important information about the pace at which blowing sand could be actively eroding rocks on Mars. Using the new information about the volume of sand that is moving, scientists estimate rocks in Nili Patera would be worn away at about the same pace as rocks near sand dunes in Antarctica, where similar sand fluxes occur.
"Our new data shows wind activity is indeed a major agent of evolution of the landscape on Mars," said Jean-Philippe Avouac, Caltech team leader. "This is important because it tells us something about the current state of Mars and how the planet is working today, geologically."
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/MRO/news/mro20120509.html
When people think of space technologies, many think of high-tech solar panels, complex and powerful propulsion systems or sophisticated, electronic guidance systems. Another critical piece of spaceflight technology, however, is an ultra stable, highly accurate device for timing - essential to NASA's success on deep-space exploration missions.
NASA is preparing to fly a Deep Space Atomic Clock, or DSAC, demonstration that will revolutionize the way we conduct deep-space navigation by enabling a spacecraft to calculate its own timing and navigation data in real time. This one-way navigation technology would improve upon the current two-way system in which information is sent to Earth, requiring a ground team to calculate timing and navigation and then transmitting it back to the spacecraft. A real-time, on-board navigation capability is key to improving NASA’s capabilities for executing time critical events, such as a planetary landing or planetary "fly-by," when signal delays are too great for the ground to interact with the spacecraft during the event.
"Adopting DSAC on future NASA missions will increase navigation and radio science data quantity by two to three times, improve data quality by up to 10 times and reduce mission costs by shifting toward a more flexible and extensible one-way radio navigation architecture," said Todd Ely, principal investigator of the Deep Space Atomic Clock Technology Demonstration at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. The project is part of NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions program, managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., for NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist in Washington.
The one-way deep space navigation enabled by DSAC uses the existing deep space network more efficiently than the current two-way system, thus expanding the network’s capacity without adding any new antennas or their associated costs. This is important, since future human exploration of deep space will demand more tracking from the deep space network than can currently be delivered with the existing system.
"The Deep Space Atomic Clock flight demonstration mission will advance this laboratory-qualified technology to flight readiness and will make a practical atomic clock available to a variety of space missions," Ely said.
The clock is a miniature mercury-ion atomic device the DSAC team will fly as a payload on an Earth orbiter in a one-year experiment to validate its operability in space and its usefulness for one-way navigation.
"A potential use for DSAC on a future mission would be in a follow-up to the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter," Ely said. NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter launched to Mars in 2005 on a search for evidence that water existed on the planet's surface for enough time to provide a habitat for life. The orbiter completed its primary science phase in 2008 and continues to work in an extended mission. Atomic clocks are the most accurate timekeeping method known and are used as the primary standard for international time distribution services -- to control the frequency of television broadcasts, and in global navigation satellite systems such as the Global Positioning System.
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/tdm/clock/dsac.html
The star, catalogued as WISE J180956.27-330500.2, was discovered in images taken during the WISE survey in 2010, the most detailed infrared survey to date of the entire celestial sky. It stood out from other objects because it glowed brightly with infrared light. When compared to images taken more than 20 years ago, astronomers found the star was 100 times brighter.
"We were not searching specifically for this phenomenon, but because WISE scanned the whole sky, we can find such unique objects," said Poshak Gandhi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), lead author of a new paper to be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.
Results indicate the star recently exploded with copious amounts of fresh dust, equivalent in mass to our planet Earth. The star is heating the dust and causing it to glow with infrared light.
"Observing this period of explosive change while it is actually ongoing is very rare," said co-author Issei Yamamura of JAXA. "These dust eruptions probably occur only once every 10,000 years in the lives of old stars, and they are thought to last less than a few hundred years each time. It's the blink of an eye in cosmological terms."
The aging star is in the "red giant" phase of its life. Our own sun will expand into a red giant in about 5 billion years. When a star begins to run out of fuel, it cools and expands. As the star puffs up, it sheds layers of gas that cool and congeal into tiny dust particles. This is one of the main ways dust is recycled in our universe, making its way from older stars to newborn solar systems. The other way, in which the heaviest of elements are made, is through the deathly explosions, or supernovae, of the most massive stars.
"It's an intriguing glimpse into the cosmic recycling program," said Bill Danchi, WISE program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "Evolved stars, which this one appears to be, contribute about 50 percent of the particles that make up humans."
Astronomers know of one other star currently pumping out massive amounts of dust. Called Sakurai's Object, this star is farther along in the aging process than the one discovered recently by WISE.
After Poshak and his team discovered the unusual, dusty star with WISE, they went back to look for it in previous infrared all-sky surveys. The object was not seen at all by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), which flew in 1983, but shows up brightly in images taken as part of the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) in 1998.
Poshak and his colleagues calculated the star appears to have brightened dramatically since 1983. The WISE data show the dust has continued to evolve over time, with the star now hidden behind a very thick veil. The team plans to follow up with space- and ground-based telescopes to confirm its nature and to better understand how older stars recycle dust back into the cosmos.
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/WISE/news/wise_20120426.html
Infrared and X-ray observations from two space telescopes have been combined to create a unique look at violent events within the giant galaxy Centaurus A. The observations strengthen the view that the galaxy may have been created by the cataclysmic collision of two older galaxies.
The infrared light was captured by the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory, a mission with important NASA contributions. The X-ray observations were made by the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton space telescope.
Centaurus A is the closest giant elliptical galaxy to Earth, at a distance of around 12 million light-years. It stands out because it harbors a massive black hole at its core and emits intense blasts of radio waves.
While previous images taken in visible light hinted at the complex inner structure in Centaurus A, combining the output of two orbiting observatories working at almost opposite ends of the electromagnetic spectrum has revealed the unusual structure in much greater detail.
The galaxy was observed by astronomer Sir John Herschel in 1847 during his survey of the southern skies. Now, more than 160 years later, the observatory bearing his family name has played a unique role in uncovering some of its secrets.
With the Herschel observatory, the giant black scar of obscuring dust crossing the center of Centaurus A all but disappears when viewed at long infrared wavelengths. The images show the flattened inner disk of a spiral galaxy, the shape of which scientists believe is due to a collision with an elliptical galaxy during a past epoch.
The Herschel data also uncover evidence for intense star birth toward the center of the galaxy, along with two jets emanating from the galaxy's core -- one of them 15,000 light-years long. Newly discovered clouds co-aligned with the jets can also be seen in Herschel's view.
The XMM-Newton X-ray observatory recorded the high-energy glow from one of the jets, extending more than 12,000 light-years away from the galaxy's bright nucleus. XMM-Newton's view shows not only the way that the jet interacts with the surrounding interstellar matter, but also the galaxy's intensely active nucleus, and its large gaseous halo.
The jets seen by both satellites are evidence of the supermassive black hole --10 million times the mass of our sun -- at the center of the galaxy.
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/herschel/news/herschel20120404.html
Leaner, greener flying machines for the year 2025 are on the drawing boards of three industry teams under contract to the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project.
Teams from The Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, Calif., Lockheed Martin in Palmdale, Calif., and Northrop Grumman in El Segundo, Calif., have spent the last year studying how to meet NASA goals to develop technology that would allow future aircraft to burn 50 percent less fuel than aircraft that entered service in 1998 (the baseline for the study), with 50 percent fewer harmful emissions; and to shrink the size of geographic areas affected by objectionable airport noise by 83 percent.
"The real challenge is we want to accomplish all these things simultaneously," said ERA project manager Fay Collier. "It's never been done before. We looked at some very difficult metrics and tried to push all those metrics down at the same time."
So NASA put that challenge to industry – awarding a little less than $11 million to the three teams to assess what kinds of aircraft designs and technologies could help meet the goals. The companies have just given NASA their results.
"We'll be digesting the three studies and we'll be looking into what to do next," said Collier.
Boeing's advanced vehicle concept centers around the company's now familiar blended wing body design as seen in the sub-scale remotely piloted X-48, which has been wind tunnel tested at NASA's Langley Research Center and flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. One thing that makes this concept different from current airplanes is the placement of its Pratt & Whitney geared turbofan engines. The engines are on top of the plane's back end, flanked by two vertical tails to shield people on the ground from engine noise. The aircraft also would feature an advanced lightweight, damage tolerant, composite structure; technologies for reducing airframe noise; advanced flight controls; hybrid laminar flow control, which means surfaces designed to reduce drag; and long-span wings which improve fuel efficiency.
Lockheed Martin took an entirely different approach. Its engineers proposed a box wing design, in which a front wing mounted on the lower belly of the plane is joined at the tips to an aft wing mounted on top of the plane. The company has studied the box wing concept for three decades, but has been waiting for lightweight composite materials, landing gear technologies, hybrid laminar flow and other tools to make it a viable configuration. Lockheed's proposal combines the unique design with a Rolls Royce Liberty Works Ultra Fan Engine. This engine has a bypass ratio that is approximately five times greater than current engines, pushing the limits of turbofan technology.
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/topics/aeronautics/features/greener_aircraft.html
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For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/benefits/salt.html
Georges Lemaitre teaching at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. In 1927, Georges Lemaitre exposed a family of solutions to Einstein's relativity equations that describe an expanding Universe quite than a static one, and provide the first observational opinion of the Hubble steady. The theory later became much improved known as the Big Bang theory. Identification ESA's fifth Automated Transfer Vehicle after Belgian scientist Georges Lemaitre continue the custom of drawing on great European visionaries to reflect Europe's bottomless roots in science, technology and culture. Credits: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
ESA's Automated Transfer Vehicles (ATVs) are a necessary contribution by Europe to organization the International Space Station. Naming the fifth after Belgian scientist Georges Lemaitre continues the custom of drawing on great European visionaries to reflect Europe's deep roots in science, technology and culture.
The first Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), which made a flawless flight in 2008, was sname after French science fiction author Jules Verne. It was follow in 2011 by ATV-2, named in honor of German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler.
It will be the twist of the third ATV, name following the Italian physicist and space pioneer Edoardo Amaldi, to head towards the Space Station on 9 March.ATV-4, aim for launch in early 2013, carries the name of Albert Einstein.Naming the last vehicle of the family, ATV-5, after Belgian physicist Georges Lemaitre, father of the Big Bang theory, continue this approach.
Ball is the prime contractor for the JPSS-1 spacecraft, which NASA is procuring for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric management. Ball has a $248 million fixed-price contract to build JPSS-1, and a separate $82.4 million contract to construct a clone of the Ozone map and Profile Suite instrument.
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